Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo

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Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo (in English: James Francis Edward Stuart) (London, June 10, 1688 – Rome, January 1, 1766), also known as the Knight of Saint George, and as the Old Pretender, was the son of James II of England and Mary of Modena and held the Jacobite claim to the throne of England with the name of James III of England and VIII of Scotland.

Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo
Pretender to the English and Scottish thrones such as James III of England and VIII of Scotland

Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo by Alexis Simon Belle.
Personal information
Birth June 10, 1688
London, England
Death January 1, 1766 (age 77)
Rome, Papal States
Real home Stuart House
Dad James II of England
Mother Mary of Modena
Consort Clementina Sobieski
Children Carlos Eduardo Estuardo
Enrique Benedicto Estuardo
[edit data on Wikidata]

Coat of arms of the Prince of Wales. Tomb of Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo and his two Sons in the Basilica of San Pedro.


  • 1 First years of life
    • 1.1 Marriage and children
  • 2 Public life
  • 3 Titles and honors
    • 3.1 Coat of arms
  • 4 Ancestors
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Early life

Since his birth in the palace of Saint James, on June 10, 1688, he was the subject of controversy. He was the son of King James II, converted to Catholicism and with a second wife, María de Modena. From his first marriage, the king had two adult daughters who had been raised in the Protestant faith. As long as there was a possibility that either of them was his successor, the British tolerated his conversion to Catholicism. When they understood that if Maria had a son, who would be the heir, a movement grew to replace Jacobo II by force with his son-in-law, Guillermo de Orange (Statute of the United Provinces).

The prince was raised in France, where, recognized by King Louis XIV as the rightful heir to the English and Scottish thrones, he became the focus for the Jacobite movement.

After the death of his father in 1701, he was declared king, with the title of James III of England and VIII of Scotland and recognized as such by France; Spain; the Papal States and Modena, who rejected Guillermo III, María II and Ana I as successors to the British throne.

Marriage and children

He was married to the Polish princess Clementina Sobieska (1702–1735), granddaughter of King John III of Poland. She had two children:

  • Carlos Eduardo Estuardo, (December 31, 1720 – January 31, 1788).
  • Enrique Benedict Stuart, (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807), cardinal.

Public life

He was Prince of Wales between 1688 and 1689, and participated in a restorative rebellion in Scotland in 1715, but was defeated, and after this failure he settled with his family in the Papal States as France refrained from continuing to support his restoration efforts. meanwhile, Louis XV did not want a confrontation with Great Britain for this reason. Jacobo Francisco Eduardo continued to vigorously defend the Catholic cause, even counting on the support of several Protestants. His son Carlos was called the Young Pretender, and in 1743 Jacobo Francisco Eduardo gave him the leadership of the Estuardo family, although without renouncing his dynastic rights.

After the failure of the Jacobite uprising of 1745, Jacobo Francisco supported the efforts of his son Enrique Benedict Estuardo to become a Catholic clergyman (years later he would be a cardinal). This fact implied the forced celibacy of Enrique and damaged the relations of the Old Pretender with his eldest son, who protested when he was not consulted on this important decision. Henry’s ordination to the priesthood interrupted the Stuart dynastic line as the Young Pretender had no male offspring.

The Old Pretender died on January 1, 1766, at the Balestra Palace in Rome.

Titles and honors

James received the title of Prince of Wales on July 4, 1688.

Coat of arms

  • As Prince of Wales, James held the same coat of arms as the coat of arms of the kingdom, differentiated by a three-pointed silver label.


Ancestors of Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo
  8. James I of England  
  4. Charles I of England  
  9. Ana from Denmark  
  2. James II of England  
  10. Henry IV of France  
  5. Henrietta Maria of France  
  11. Maria de Medici  
  1. Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo  
  12. Francisco I of Este  
  6. Alfonso IV of Este  
  13. Maria Farnesio  
  3. Mary of Modena  
  14. Jeronimo Martinozzi  
  7. Laura Martinozzi  
  15. Laura Margarita Mazzarini  

Carlos Estuardo
Prince of Wales
George, Crown Prince of Hanover

James II of England
Claimant King of England, Ireland and Scotland
1701 – 1766
Carlos Estuardo


  1. Lundy, Darryl (November 29, 2011). “James Francis Edward Stuart, 1st and last Duke of Cornwall”. ThePeerage.com. 
  2. James Francis Edward Stuart. “The Princes of Wales”. English Monarchs. 
  3. Velde, François (August 5, 2013). “Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family”. Heraldica.org. 
  4. Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999) [1981]. Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe (2nd ed.). London: Little, Brown. pp. 27.50. ISBN 978-0-316-84820-6. 
  5. Template: Britannica
  6. de Saint-Évremond, Charles (1728). The works of Monsieur de St. Evremond. London: J. and J. Knapton, J. Darby, A. Battesworth. p. 106. Unknown parameter |translator=ignored (help)
  7. Biografia universale antica e modern [Universal ancient and modern biography] (in Italian) XIX. presso Gio. Battista Missiaglia. 1824. p. 61. 

external links

  •   Wikimedia Commons hosts a multimedia category on Jacobo Francisco Eduardo Estuardo.

  •   Data: Q211681
  •   Multimedia: James Francis Edward Stuart

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